Biological Terminology – Botanical Terms 1


Adventitious roots:
Roots which grow from the stem or leaf rather than from the root system of a plant. Anabolism Synthesis of complex organic molecules from simple molecules during metabolism.
Algae:
Lowest aquatic green plants of Thallophyte group.
Anaphase:
The stage in cell division in which chromatids or chromosomes move towards opposite poles. It begins with the splitting of the sister chromatids. They separate at their disk-like centromeres and are pulled apart by the contracting action of the spindle.
Annual rings:
Concentric rings seen in a cross-section of a tree trunk each representing the age of the plant.
Annulus:
A ring-like structure present on the stalk of a mushroom showing the remnant of the velum.
Anthridium:
Male sperm-bearing organ of lower plants such as ferns, algae and mosses.
Aquatic Plants (Hydrophytes):
Plants grown in water.
Archegonium:
Female, egg-bearing organ of lower plants like ferns, mosses, etc.
Bark:
Outermost corky sheath of trees and shrubs.
Basidia:
The club-shaped cells in the gills of mushrooms which give rise to haploid spores called ‘basidiospores’.
Basidioscarp:
The fruity body of the mushroom and other fungi.
Biennial:
Plants which complete their life cycle in two years.
Blight:
Any of the plant diseases that result in sudden dying of leaves growing tips, or an entire plant. Bryophytes refer to ‘Classification of the plant Kingdom’.
Bud:
A outgrowth on a stem or branch often enclosed in protective scales, comprising a shortened stem and immature leaves or floral parts; a partially opened immature flower.
Bulb:
A disc shaped condensed underground stem with fleshy leaves, for example, onion or turnip, usually surrounded by scale-like modified leaves and containing stored food for the undeveloped shoots of the new plant enclosed within it.
Cactus:
Desert plants, most of which lack leaves to minimize water loss. They are characterized by thick, fleshy often prickly stems that function as leaves.
Callus:
Thick layer of scar tissue which forms over a wounded area of stem or trunk to protect the inner tissues from exposure.
Calyx:
Protective portion of a flower consisting of sepals.
Cambium:
A layer of cells in between xylem and phloem which increases the growth of the plant.
Carnivorous Plants:
Plants which make food from insects, for example, pitcher plant.
Catabolism:
The part of metabolism in which chemical substances in living things are broken down into simpler substances. The process usually releases energy.
Cellulose:
A kind of carbohydrate, the main component of the cell wall of a plant.
Centeriole:
The part of a cell which is important in the formation of a spindle during process of a cell division.
Chlorophyll:
The green pigment found in all plants capable of photosynthesis. The molecules of chlorophyll absorb energy from sunlight and make it available for the synthesis of organic material.

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