Biological Terminology – Botanical Terms 1

Adventitious roots:
Roots which grow from the stem or leaf rather than from the root system of a plant. Anabolism Synthesis of complex organic molecules from simple molecules during metabolism.
Lowest aquatic green plants of Thallophyte group.
The stage in cell division in which chromatids or chromosomes move towards opposite poles. It begins with the splitting of the sister chromatids. They separate at their disk-like centromeres and are pulled apart by the contracting action of the spindle.
Annual rings:
Concentric rings seen in a cross-section of a tree trunk each representing the age of the plant.
A ring-like structure present on the stalk of a mushroom showing the remnant of the velum.
Male sperm-bearing organ of lower plants such as ferns, algae and mosses.
Aquatic Plants (Hydrophytes):
Plants grown in water.
Female, egg-bearing organ of lower plants like ferns, mosses, etc.
Outermost corky sheath of trees and shrubs.
The club-shaped cells in the gills of mushrooms which give rise to haploid spores called ‘basidiospores’.
The fruity body of the mushroom and other fungi.
Plants which complete their life cycle in two years.
Any of the plant diseases that result in sudden dying of leaves growing tips, or an entire plant. Bryophytes refer to ‘Classification of the plant Kingdom’.
A outgrowth on a stem or branch often enclosed in protective scales, comprising a shortened stem and immature leaves or floral parts; a partially opened immature flower.
A disc shaped condensed underground stem with fleshy leaves, for example, onion or turnip, usually surrounded by scale-like modified leaves and containing stored food for the undeveloped shoots of the new plant enclosed within it.
Desert plants, most of which lack leaves to minimize water loss. They are characterized by thick, fleshy often prickly stems that function as leaves.
Thick layer of scar tissue which forms over a wounded area of stem or trunk to protect the inner tissues from exposure.
Protective portion of a flower consisting of sepals.
A layer of cells in between xylem and phloem which increases the growth of the plant.
Carnivorous Plants:
Plants which make food from insects, for example, pitcher plant.
The part of metabolism in which chemical substances in living things are broken down into simpler substances. The process usually releases energy.
A kind of carbohydrate, the main component of the cell wall of a plant.
The part of a cell which is important in the formation of a spindle during process of a cell division.
The green pigment found in all plants capable of photosynthesis. The molecules of chlorophyll absorb energy from sunlight and make it available for the synthesis of organic material.

Be the first to comment

Leave a Reply